B-1 cells upregulate CD8 T lymphocytes and increase proinflammatory cytokines serum levels in oral encephalitozoonosis

Microsporidia are intracellular pathogens that cause severe disease in immunocompromised humans and animals. We recently demonstrated that XID mice are more susceptible to Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection by intraperitoneal route, evidencing the role of B-1 cells in resistance against infection. The present study investigated the resistance and susceptibility against E. cuniculi oral infection, including the role of B-1 cells. BALB/c and BALB/c XID (B-1 cells deficient) mice were orally infected with E. cuniculi spores. No clinical symptoms were observed in infected animals; histopathology showed lymphoplasmocytic enteritis with degeneration of the apexes of the villi in all infected groups. Higher parasite burden was observed in infected BALB/c XID mice. In the spleen and peritoneum, all infected mice showed a decrease of lymphocytes, including CD8(+) T cells, mostly in infected BALB/c XID mice. Adoptive transfer of B-1 cells (XID thorn B-1) was associated with a lower parasite burden. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-6) increased mostly in infected XID + B1 mice. Together, the present results showed that BALB/c XID mice infected by the oral route were more susceptible to encephalitozoonosis than BALB/c mice, demonstrating the B-1 cells importance in the control of the immune response against oral E. cuniculi infection.
B-1 cells;  Encephalitozoonosis;  Microsporidia infection;  Interferon;  XID mice

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Santos DL, Alvares-Saraiva AM, Xavier JG, Spadacci-Morena DD, Peres GB, Rocha PRD'A, et al. B-1 cells upregulate CD8 T lymphocytes and increase proinflammatory cytokines serum levels in oral encephalitozoonosis. Microbes Infect. 2018 Mar;20(3):196-204. doi:10.1016/j.micinf.2017.11.004.
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